The Mediterranean Basin has been the cradle of apple acculturation back the aboriginal settlements in Jericho in 9000 BC. Known in English and the affair languages as the sea “between the lands”, the Mediterranean goes and has gone by abounding names: Our Sea, for the Romans, the White Sea (Akdeniz) for the Turks, the Abundant Sea (Yam Gadol) for the Jews, the Middle Sea (Mittelmeer) for the Germans and added doubtfully the Abundant Green for the age-old Egyptians.1 Our Sea played a above role in the advice of the peoples about it and prevented clashes amid bodies with altered interests from altered genitalia of the Basin. No added such basin exists in the world. The apple map shows what a altered breadth the Mediterranean Sea has in the apple — it is big abundant to abode all of us but at the aforementioned time, with its altered shape, with its islands, accolade and straits, it creates the agency to affix the bodies about it. It looks as if it is a bankrupt sea, but it offers the capital busline routes amid east and west. The Mediterranean Sea is a attribute of creativity, of the chase for the acceptation of activity and for wisdom, and of the adulation of bodies and nature. This sea has consistently been an ambiance that has bred outstanding bodies who accept fabricated arresting contributions to the development of history in philosophy, art, music, literature, science and technology. Magnificent civilizations accept broadcast all about the Basin, from east to west, from arctic to south, from Mesopotamia to Egypt, from Anatolia, Troy to Macedonia, from the Greek burghal states to Phoenician civilization, from Carthage to Rome, from Baghdad to Al-Andalus, from Byzantium to the Ottoman Empire and from Alexandria to Bologna, and accept formed a complete abject for apple civilizations. One cannot brainstorm a history of the apple after the Egyptian, Hellenistic, Roman and Ottoman civilizations.
THE HISTORY OF INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN
Established in 300 BC, the Age-old Library of Alexandria in Egypt was one of the better and best cogent libraries of the age-old world. The aboriginal bookish developments emerged in the eastern Mediterranean and focused mainly on philosophy. Bodies about the Mediterranean Sea accept had bottomless opportunities to accommodated with altered cultures and to apprentice about the apple and this fact, starting from the Hellenistic period, gave bearing to the actualization of philosophers and scientists who fabricated abundant contributions to bookish development. Amid them were Thales from Miletus, Anaximandros, Anaximendes, Pythagoras, Xenophanes and Diogenes from Apollo, Hipocrates, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (sixth, fifth, fourth centuries BC).
The Middle Ages were the Golden Age of the Islamic bodies in the region, and amid 622 and 750 AD, starting in the Arab Peninsula, Islamic accompaniment amplification advance over the Middle East, allotment of Asia Minor, Persia, Northern Africa and Iberia. For centuries, Al-Andalus in Iberia and Morocco were addition cultural centres to Baghdad. From the eighth until the fifteenth century, abounding philosophers had a notable appulse on the development of Islamic aesthetics in the region, amid them Jabir ibn Hayyan, Al Farabi, Al Biruni, Ibn Sina, Al Qushayri, Al Ghazali, Al Baghdaadi, Ibn Rushd, Jalal ad-Din Rumi, and Ibn Khaldun.
From age-old times to the medieval and Renaissance periods, the Mediterranean Basin played a above role in philosophy, art and science. After the eighteenth century, however, back all-embracing abyssal became accessible and new barter routes developed, the Mediterranean arena began to lose its accent and added genitalia of Europe and Arctic America acquired influence. Thus, there was a about-face both from south to arctic and from east to west in the development of avant-garde philosophy, art, science and technology.
THE HISTORY OF UNIVERSITIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION
The account of the oldest universities in the apple varies, depending on how one defines a university. If a university is advised to be a degree-granting institution, all of the world’s oldest are amid in Europe breadth the convenance of acceding acceptance was boundless by the 1100s. These quotes reflect a narrow, Eurocentric appearance of the university: “The university is a European institution”, or “No added academy has advance over the absolute apple in the way in which the acceptable anatomy of the European university has done”.2 In fact, it was the countries of the Mediterranean arena that created the oldest universities in the world. Added broadly the account of the oldest universities does not accommodate the age-old civilizations of Greece, Rome, China, India or the Arab world, but the educational institutions that existed there amuse a acceptable analogue of university and should, therefore, be included.
If we account the universities based on the attenuated analogue of degree-granting institutions, we see that the oldest university in the apple is the University of Bologna, accustomed in 1088. Amid the 44 oldest universities, 25 were founded in the Mediterranean Basin, and the Italian Peninsula is the arch region, with 13 universities.3 Eight of the top ten oldest universities in the apple that accept operated continuously until the present day are in the Mediterranean area, an adumbration of how intellectually developed the arena was and still is. Although Ottoman institutions are not included in the list, Istanbul University should be mentioned, accepting been accustomed in 1453 by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. Addition important academy and the aboriginal college apprenticeship academy of the Ottoman Empire alfresco religious apprenticeship is Istanbul Technical University, which was accustomed in 1773.
If we booty a broader analogue of university as “an free free academy of college education” and attending at the 10 oldest arch universities in the world,4 again we will accept a altered list. By definition, the university aboriginal was developed as a religious academy (madrasah) that originated in the medieval Islamic world. The aboriginal one was the University of Al-Karaouine in 859. Al-Azhar University in Egypt in 972 and Nizamiyya in Iran in 1065 were the added Islamic universities in the Basin. The Universities of Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Montpelier, Cambridge, Salamanca and Padua are the added universities in the list, and the Mediterranean Basin has a able attendance in it.
Since 1500, abounding universities accept been founded all over the apple and abounding altered types of college apprenticeship institutions emerged. College apprenticeship is still in alteration beneath the burden of globalization but it is accessible that the role of the university as an academy continues to abound and expectations of association from the university are altering rapidly in today’s alteration environment. There may be altered definitions of universities but what is assertive is that the university is the artefact of the Mediterranean region.
There is no reliable abstracts apropos either how abounding universities are in the Mediterranean Basin or how abounding Mediterranean universities attempt accepted but this region’s rich, actual accomplishments has created an outstanding bookish ambiance breadth abounding philosophers, artists, musicians and scientists of accepted acceptability accept emerged over the centuries.
UNIVERSITIES LINKED BY THE SEA
The people, countries, cultures and institutions about the Mediterranean Sea allotment accepted characteristics and ethics that accept accustomed the conception of abounding acknowledged projects and will best absolutely abide to do so. The Mediterranean universities, with their amount strengths based in their abysmal bookish ability and socially commutual agents and acceptance can comedy a above role amid east and west as able-bodied as amid arctic and south. One of the accessible strengths is the advancement of acceptance and academics. European Community Action Scheme for the Advancement of University Acceptance (ERASMUS) statistics appearance that amid 1987 and 2011, over 46 per cent of apprentice and bookish advancement was in the Mediterranean countries (ANNEX01SM — Outgoing Erasmus acceptance from 1987/1988 to 2010/2011). Advancement will advice the Mediterranean universities extend their horizons and become all-around institutions.
University networks are addition important agency and in adjustment to accept what role these can comedy in this process, a abrupt attending at the networks that abide in the arena will be useful. The Community of Mediterranean Universities (CMU) is one of the oldest university networks in the Mediterranean area, accepting been accustomed in 1983, back it was hosted by the University of Bari. It has over 160 affiliate universities from 12 European and 9 Arab States. CMU additionally has able access with supranational organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Alignment (UNESCO), the European Union and the European Council. The aboriginal accommodating agreement, active with UNESCO on 7 October 1992 was followed by addition active on 2 August 1997, which clearly accustomed CMU as a non-governmental organization. There is a actual applicable bulletin on its website: “Many voices, alone one basin”. We do accept abounding choir in one region: CMU is far from actuality the alone arrangement of the Mediterranean universities — in fact, there are many. Amid them are the arrangement of Mediterranean Technical Universities (RMEI), the Euro-Mediterranean University in Slovenia, a arrangement accustomed by a accumulation of Mediterranean universities, the Arrangement of the Mediterranean Universities, Mediterranean Universities Union, which is one of the European Investment Bank University Networks with its address in Rome and 84 affiliate universities, and the Euro-Mediterranean Forum, which has some 100 members.
These networks action with agnate missions but until afresh accept tended not to acquaint with anniversary added efficiently. Some 10 years ago, CMU and RMEI absitively to authority their affairs at the aforementioned universities on the aforementioned dates. Several collective affairs accept been organized in Rabat, Athens and Izmir. They accept additionally absitively that they will accelerate assembly to one another’s meetings. Addition development has been the advance of cooperation amid Black Sea Universities Network, CMU and RMEI. Some universities that are associates of these networks accept played important roles in abutting these three organizations in the aftermost decade. Added importantly, while it is acceptable to accept abounding voices, these networks — anniversary accepting amid 100 and 200 associates — action independently. It is time to anticipate about how to accompany calm all of these networks and actualize a accommodating alignment that is both added able and added able and will represent Mediterranean universities on any platform. If Mediterranean university networks are able to adapt themselves to assignment together, again the appulse of these networks will be abundant greater not alone in the Mediterranean Basin, but at European and all-around levels as well.
While there has historically been battle in the arena amid assorted groups, there accept additionally consistently been accepted artistic and bookish aspirations and attitudes and, over the centuries, these groups accept formed calm and abstruse from anniversary added in trade, as able-bodied as in the arts and sciences. The all-around changes that accept appear about in contempo years, such as added advancement and all-embracing communication, can actualize the befalling and the charge to body alike greater cross-cultural alternation and cooperation in and amid university networks to access the administration of acquaintance and assets in the Mediterranean Basin.
1 Abulafia, David, The Abundant Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean, Penguin Books, 2011, p. xxiii.
2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oldest_universities_in_continuous_operation, from Hyde, J.K. (1991), Verger, Jacques (2003), Hunt, Janin (2008), Maksidi, George (1970), Rüegg, Walter (1992), Nuria Sanz,Sjur Bergan (2006).
3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_medieval_universities (based on Verger, Jacques (2003)), Powicke, F. M.: 1949 (http://www.unibo.it/it/ateneo).
Quran Quotes Black Background – Quran Quotes Black Background
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